This calculator displays a number in the form of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. The ancient Egyptian numeral system was used since around 3000 B.C.E. during three to four thousands years. The numeral system description can be found just below the calculator.
The ancient Egyptian numbering system 1
The ancient Egyptians developed the numbering system which is based on 10, no doubt because human has ten fingers. They had the symbols to represent units, tens, hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands and millions:
|10||hobble for cattle|
|100||coil of rope|
|1 000||lotus plant|
|100 000||tadpole (polliwog)|
|1 000 000||god Heh|
|Many millions (infinity)||lizard with three strokes|
The corresponding symbol is simply repeated to represent a number from 2 to 9, several tens, several hundreds and so on.
The ancient Egyptians carved or painted most of their hieroglyphs from right to left, but sometimes the scribing order was reversed. Our calculator produces the numerical hieroglyphs sequence in reverse order with higher degree symbols on the left and lower degree ones on the right. You may recognise the reading order by the figures with face - start reading toward the front of its head.
The ancient Egyptians scribed a fractional number by a sum of unit fractions. For example number 0.89 (89/100) can be expanded to the sum of unit fractions: 1/2+1/3+1/18+1/900. Read Egyptian fractions for more details.
1/2 was represented by special symbol, the other unit fraction denominators were scribed under the mouth symbol.
|1/2 - half|
|the mouth symbol was placed over a unit fraction denominator|
Donald Frazer, Hieroglyphs and Arithmetic of the Ancient Egyptian Scribes ↩